The market access card was developed by the International Trade Centre (ITC) to support companies, governments and market access researchers. The database, which is visible through the market access map online tool, contains information on tariff and non-tariff barriers in all active trade agreements that are not limited to those that are officially notified to the WTO. It also documents data on non-preferential trade agreements (for example. B generalized preference regimes). Until 2019, Market Access Map has provided downloadable links to text contracts and their rules of origin.  The new version of the Market Access Map, which will be released this year, will provide direct web links to relevant contract sites and connect to other ITC tools, particularly the rules of the original intermediary. It is expected to become a multi-purpose instrument to help companies understand free trade agreements and qualify for the original requirements under these agreements.  Domestic industry often opposes free trade on the grounds that lower prices for imported products will reduce its profits and market share.   For example, if the United States reduced tariffs on imported sugar, sugar producers would receive lower prices and profits, and sugar consumers would spend less on the same amount of sugar because of the same lower prices. David Ricardo`s economic theory says that consumers would necessarily earn more than producers would lose.   Given that each of the domestic sugar producers would lose a great deal, while each of the large consumers would earn little, domestic producers are more likely to mobilize against tariff reductions.
 In general, producers often prefer domestic subsidies and import tariffs in their home countries, while refusing subsidies and tariffs on their export markets. Studies indicate that attitudes towards free trade do not necessarily reflect the individuals` own interests.   Unlike a customs union, the parties to the ESTV do not retain common external tariffs, i.e. apply different tariffs and other policies with respect to non-members. This function allows non-parties to free themselves as part of a free trade agreement by entering the market with the lowest external tariffs. Such a risk requires the introduction of rules for determining which products originate may be preferred under a free trade agreement, which is not necessary for the establishment of a customs union.  In principle, there is a minimum processing time leading to a “substantial processing” of the products, so they can be considered original products. By the definition of products originating in the PTA, the preferential rules of origin distinguish between domestic and non-origin products: only the former are eligible for preferential tariffs provided by the ESTV, which must pay the import duties of the MFN.  A free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty is an agreement contrary to international law establishing a free trade area between cooperating states. Free trade agreements, a form of trade pacts, set tariffs and tariffs on imports and exports by countries, with the aim of reducing or removing barriers to trade and thereby promoting international trade.  These agreements “generally focus on a chapter with preferential tariff treatment,” but they often contain “trade facilitation and regulatory clauses in areas such as investment, intellectual property, public procurement, technical standards, and health and plant health issues.”  During the interwar period, economic protectionism took shape in the United States, particularly in the form of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, attributed by economists to the continued and global spread of the Great Depression. :33 From 1934, trade liberalization began with the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act.